check_object() is the start of your SCT chains to check whether students have correctly defined objects.

### Example 1: Simple object

Consider the following solution:

# Create the variable x
x <- 15

You don’t care too much about how x was created, as long as it’s defined and refers to the correct value. To test this robustly, you can use check_object() in your SCT:

ex() %>% check_object("x") %>% check_equal()

check_object() will check if the variable x is defined in the student environment; check_equal() will check whether its value is the same as x in the solution environment. All of the following student submissions will be accepted by check_object():

• x <- 15
• x <- 12 + 3
• x <- 3; x <- x + 12

How the object x came about does not matter: only the end result, the actual content of x, matters.

### Example 2: Only check the existence

Say that you want the student to create an object x, but you don’t care what the contents of the variable are:

# Create an arbitrary object x
x <- 123

Simply drop the check_equal() bit in your SCT:

ex() %>% check_object("x")

### Example 3: eq_condition

The argument eq_condition becomes important when working with data structures that can contain names, such as vectors and lists. Suppose you have the following solution:

# Create the list l
l <- list(a = 2, b = 3, c = 4)

To test this list, you can use the following SCT:

ex() %>% check_object("l") %>% check_equal()
• eq_condition = "equivalent" by default, meaning that the names of the data structure are not checked. If the student creates a list l as follows:

l <- list(d = 2, e = 3, f = 4)

it will also be accepted.

• If you set eq_condition = "equal":

ex() %>% check_object("l") %>% check_equal(eq_condition = "equal")

the data structure’s attributes, such as its names, are also checked. Now,

l <- list(d = 2, e = 3, f = 4)

will not be accepted

### Example 4: Automated feedback messages

Just like for check_equal() in the check_function()-induced SCT chain, the automatic messages that are generated when the student makes mistakes of different kinds is continuously improved to be as insightful as possible. For example, when the solution expects:

x = 123

but the student submits:

x = "123"

An SCT that contains

ex() %>% check_object('x') %>% check_equal()

will mention: “x is a character string, while it should be a number.”. When comparing character strings between student and solution, this comparison goes further, hinting about potential incorrect capitalization, incorrect spacing, incorrect punctuation or possible typos.

### Example 5: Complex objects

Because R deals very often with more complex data structures, there are several utility functions to test specific parts of an object instead of the entire object as a whole. As an example, consider the following solution:

# A dataframe df is available
df <- data.frame(name = c("vincent", "lisa", "robin"),
count1 = c(4, 7, 2),
count2 = c(5, 8, 10))

# Add a column tot, sum of count1 and count2
df$tot <- df$count1 + df\$count2

To check whether the student correctly added this column, you can use the following SCT. As usual, the function is able to produce meaningful feedback in case of failure, but these messages can be overridden. To explain the meaning of the different steps, we have specified custom messages for each one of them:

ex() %>% check_object("df", undefined_msg = "Make sure to not remove df!") %>%
check_column("tot", col_missing_msg = "Have you added the column tot to df?") %>%
check_equal(incorrect_msg = "Have you correctly calculated the column tot based on count1 and count2?")

Equivalent to check_column(), testwhat also features the check_element() function to check the equality of list elements. The only difference with check_column() is the automatic feedback message that is generated, as a data frame is a list object and its elements are the columns.